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Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

sciencedirect.com | Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Italy | Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

Highlights

Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed;

Particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured;

Nitric oxide exhaled by smokers before and after smoking/vaping was evaluated;

Alveolar and tracheobronchial doses of particle for a single puff were estimated;

Comparisons with conventional cigarette were made.
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session).

Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity.

Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 109, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 109, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 109 part. cm− 3 for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 1010, 5.2 × 1010 and 2.3 × 1010 particles.

The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received.

Abbreviations
COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases; CPC, Condensation Particle Counter; e-cigarette, electronic cigarette; e-liquid, electronic liquid; ENDS, electronic nicotine delivery systems; eNO, Exhaled nitric oxide; FMPS, Fast Mobility Particle Sizer spectrometer; IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer; LAMI, Laboratory of Industrial Measurements; NaCl, Sodium chloride; NOS, Nitric oxide synthase; RDTD, Rotating Disk Thermodiluter; RNA, Ribonucleic acid; TLC, Total lung capacity; UFP, Ultrafine particle; VOC, Volatile organic compound; WHO, World Health Organization
Keywords
Exhaled nitric oxide; Electronic cigarette; Tobacco cigarette; Ultrafine particles; Alveolar and tracheobronchial particle dose; Short-term effect

Sara Marinia, , Giorgio Buonannoa, b, Luca Stabilea, Giorgio Ficcoa
Corresponding author at: Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR, Italy. Fax: + 39 07762994002.

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